Carlos Bernierby Steve Treder
August 25, 2004
Look up Carlos Bernier on baseball-reference.com, or in most any encyclopedia, and you'll find only the briefest of entries:
Year Club Pos-G G AB R H 2B 3B HR RBI BB SO SB CS BA OBP SLG 1953 PIT OF-86 105 310 48 66 7 8 3 31 51 53 15 14 .213 .332 .316One season, that's it. We see that he was 26 years old, and played primarily center field for a miserable 50-104 last place team. It's obvious that he had serious speed, though his stolen base percentage was pretty bad. We see that he walked a lot, struck out a lot, and generally didn't hit much at all except triples.
What is one to conclude from such a tiny snippet of a career? It would seem that this was a guy with a set of wheels but not much else, who knocked around the minors for awhile, finally got his shot at age 26 with a really bad team, didn't impress anyone, and then disappeared into minor league oblivion.
To some extent that summary would be accurate. But it would also be oh, so inadequate in really describing Carlos Bernier, or his career. In fact Bernier was a very good player, certainly good enough to have had a substantial major league career, and in fact he enjoyed a very long and highly accomplished professional baseball career, both in the mainland US and in Puerto Rico. The baseball career of Carlos Bernier was in fact deeply intertwined with many of the most interesting and complicated issues of mid-20th century professional baseball: integration, racism, and the changing relationship between major league and minor league baseball in the 1950s and 1960s. Let's look beyond the MLB-only superficiality and get to know something more about Carlos Bernier.
Bernier (pronounced "bur-NEAR") was born January 28, 1927, in Juana Diaz, Puerto Rico. As with so many other players, of his era and others, black and white, foreign-born and American, he lied about his age. Who's Who in Baseball for 1954, as well as the Mutual Baseball Almanac for that year, both list him as having been born in January of 1929. The MacMillan Baseball Encyclopedia, Total Baseball, all the official record books for decades went along with the 1929 birth date; apparently it's only been the result of SABR's intensive biographical research within the past few years that's exposed the fib. So during his playing career, it's a safe assumption that Bernier's teams believed him to be two years younger than he was, although it's also reasonable to imagine they might have had suspicions.
Bernier's first season in mainland Organized Baseball came at the age of 21, in 1948 with Port Chester, New York, in the Class B Colonial League. The Port Chester ball club was affiliated that season with the St. Louis Browns' organization, but often in those days minor league affiliates employed some players farmed by the big league team, as well as some of their own. My guess is that Bernier was likely one of their own, contracted independently.
Whatever the case, it's certain that Bernier was a pioneer: he was one of the handful of black players in Organized Baseball in 1948.
He was a switch-hitter, who played 31 games at second base, and 67 games in the outfield. In 270 at-bats his stat line (see bottom of article) was quite similar to that which he would show with the Pirates in 1953: he hit for neither average nor power (248/373/359), struck out a lot, but also walked a lot and stole a bunch of bases. With just 67 hits, he scored 72 runs.
This performance caught someone's eye: Bernier began the 1949 season at the triple-A level, with Indianapolis of the American Association, the Pittsburgh Pirates' top farm club. I suspect he was formally engaged with the Pirates' organization at that point; triple-A farm teams in those days often employed their own players alongside the parent club's, but those players were generally veterans who were there for the purpose of drawing fans and winning games. The 22-year-old (supposedly 20-year-old) Bernier, with his limited O.B. experience, was clearly a developing talent.
The engagement was profoundly brief: after just two pinch-running appearances early in 1949, Bernier was let go. He immediately caught on again in the Colonial League, this time with the independent entry from Bristol, Connecticut. Now a full-time right-handed batter and outfielder (both of which he would remain for the rest of his career), at Bristol Bernier had a tremendous year, leading the team to a runaway pennant. Bernier hit a ton (336/465/516), led the league in runs scored (136 in 120 games), and obliterated the league record for stolen bases with 89 (second in the league was 36).
But Bristol was an independent team, and there was no promotion up any organizational ladder for Bernier. In 1950 he was back with Bristol, and there he performed splendidly again: in 52 games, he stole 53 bases and scored 67 runs. But on July 14th, the fledgling Colonial League disbanded, and Bernier (along with fellow black Puerto Rican teammate Ruben Gomez) hooked up with St. Jean, Quebec, in the Class C Provincial League. In 64 games over the remainder of the season, Bernier tore that league apart, hitting 335/451/574, and scoring 69 runs. (Vic Power was in that league, and he hit 334/402/533.) The St. Jean club, with Bernier on board over the second half, finished in first place. Over his total 1950 season, Bernier stole 94 bases, hit 24 homers, and scored 136 runs in 116 games.
Still no major league organization signed him. In 1951 the 24-year-old (presumably 22-year-old) Bernier joined the independent Tampa Smokers of the Class B Florida International League. As we know, this league favored pitchers to an extreme degree, and Bernier's dampened hitting stats reflect it (271/375/407). Nonetheless, Bernier led the league with 51 steals (second was 35), 21 triples (second was 11), and 124 runs (second was 94), leading Tampa to an easy pennant.
This performance did gain Bernier a real promotion: in 1952 he was back at the highest level of the minor leagues, this time with the Hollywood Stars of the Pacific Coast League. The Stars were the Pittsburgh Pirates' top farm club, but the PCL in that period wasn't a "triple-A" league; it was officially designated as an "Open" classification. (The PCL was striving to gain Major League status, and to do so it was requiring its member clubs to adhere to a set of conditions and operating policies that had them behaving little in the manner of farm teams, and much in the manner of major league teams, in the nature of their player contracts and talent development function.)
The PCL in 1952 was a very low-scoring league (as were most leagues, major and minor, in '52; I suspect it might have been a very cool, damp summer nationwide). Bernier's .301 batting average for Hollywood was third best in the league, and he led the PCL with 105 runs scored and 65 stolen bases (second was 33); once again Bernier's team won its league championship.
Hollywood and the Los Angeles Angels (affiliated with the Cubs) were the only PCL teams in 1952 that were farm clubs at all, and the PCL imposed special restrictions on the freedom with which their major league affiliates could option players in and out of the league. In an article I wrote for Nine a few years ago, I questioned why the last place, 42-112 Pirates of 1952 never gave Bernier even a late-season call-up, but having since learned about the PCL's Open Classification arrangement, I now suspect Bernier's Hollywood contract didn't allow it.
But as we know, in 1953 Bernier was promoted to the majors by Pittsburgh. He was the first black player ever to play for the Pirates. (Pittsburgh became the second National League franchise integrated by Branch Rickey, who had taken over their operation in 1951.) Bernier played 57 games as the Pirates' center fielder in '53 (and 29 other games in right and left), and as we've seen, his performance was pretty bad: he didn't hit, and he didn't steal well (15-for-29). Based on this disappointing rookie year, it wouldn't seem surprising that Pittsburgh didn't stick with Bernier as a regular outfielder for 1954.
But here's where the story gets perplexing. We know that Bernier did badly in his major league debut, and that the Pirates never game him another chance. But the Pirates, under Rickey's direction, were in an extreme "youth movement" phase in the early-to-mid-1950s. There were lots of young players who performed poorly for Pittsburgh in this period, who were given second and third and even more chances. Pitchers Bob Friend and Vern Law both had dismal season after dismal season for the Pirates, and both were allowed to persevere until they blossomed. Ron Kline was 0-7, 5.47 in his rookie year with the Pirates; Elroy Face was 6-8, 6.58; both were brought back. First baseman-corner outfielder Bob Skinner hit 249/316/370 in his rookie season, was sent back down for a year, came back up and hit 202/282/326 -- and was still kept in the majors. Bobby Del Greco, Lee Walls, Bob Purkey, Roman Mejias - the list of young players in that period who did badly in their first exposures at the major league level, and were given further chances by the Pirates anyway, is a long one. This was a sensible thing for the team to do; developing talent is often a matter of having the patience to allow players to work through adversity.
Bernier got no such chance. He was on the Pirates' spring training roster in 1954, but didn't make the team. Instead Pittsburgh went with 23-year-old Dick Hall as one of their center fielders; Hall had hit .246 in the Class B Big State League in 1953, .242 in the Class B Carolina League in 1952, and .138 in an 80-at-bat major league trial in '52. Center field continued to be a gaping hole for the Pirates: in 1955 they often used converted infielder Eddie O'Brien (233/290/254) in center, and in both 1954 and 1955 wound up playing slow-footed slugger Frank Thomas quite a bit out there, despite the vast left-center spaciousness of Forbes Field. Overall they never got an adequate performance from anyone in center field until Bill Virdon was acquired via trade in May of 1956. Bernier, meanwhile, was back in Hollywood the entire time, continuing to get on base, steal, and score runs as well as anyone in the PCL. After 1953, as we know, Bernier never played another inning in the major leagues.
Exactly why this happened is an intriguing question. Consider what Bernier's son, Dr. N. Bernier-Collazo, has written:
... he lived in an era when it was fashionable to discriminate; in fact, many states upheld laws that discriminated against people of color. My father's only shortfall was that he did not handle the injustices of society with the same grace as a Jackie Robinson or a Roberto Clemente. He was quite angry at the injustices and faced them head on, even if it meant challenging a white major league umpire who made a racial slur. I have often wondered how different life would have been for him with all of his talents if he had played now, instead of then. His career would have been spent primarily in the majors, rather than the minors. Fans must understand that he did not leave the major leagues because he did not have the talent to be there ... He did not remain in the majors because he could not tolerate the injustices of a country where it was still acceptable to hang people of color for drinking out of fountains designated for whites only. In the Pacific Coast League, he did not have to confront the challenges he had to confront in Pittsburgh.
I'm not certain of the precise factuality of all of this. Dr. Bernier-Collazo more than implies that his father voluntarily chose to remain in the PCL, as opposed to being assigned there by the Pittsburgh organization; I find this implication dubious. But I heartily agree with the assertion that Carlos Bernier had ample talent to remain and thrive at the major league level. His sustained star-level performance at the triple-A level through 1964, and especially his breadth of talent -- the OBP ability, the great speed, the decent power - suggests that given the proper opportunity, Bernier would have been a very solid major leaguer. I doubt he would have been a star - his strikeout proclivity was significant - but it's quite clear that his poor hitting performance in 1953 was out of line with his true level of ability. I estimate that if he had remained in the majors, Bernier would have been a .240-to-.280 hitter, and his capacity to draw walks, with his great speed and ability to hit the occasional homer, would have rendered him a very useful player for a number of years, as a fourth outfielder/platoon center fielder if not a starter.
But it never happened. What did happen was that back in the PCL in 1954, while having another fine year (313/393/439), Bernier was involved in an incident that likely became a factor in his failure to ever again be promoted to the majors. In August of that year, Bernier got into an argument with a PCL umpire, and struck the ump, earning himself a suspension for the remainder of the season - the headline in Jet magazine was "Hits Umpire, Negro Coast Star Banned for Season."
Indeed, Bernier developed a reputation for feistiness that undoubtedly made major league organizations leery of him. A history of the Hollywood Stars describes a feud between Bernier and Los Angeles Angels' infielder Gene Mauch:
Mauch and Bernier fought more than once - Mauch, who would go on to become one of the nicest MLB managers who ever lived, delighted in scooping up sand in his free hand into Bernier's face every time the Star would steal second.
Another Jet article, from December 1955, deals with brawls in the Puerto Rican Winter League, and names Bernier and Vic Power as principals. And the remembrance by Bernier's son includes this:
Despite his extremely competitive demeanor on the field, he was a gentle soul off the field with the greatest qualities: kindness, compassionate, generous, responsible, and loving ... Many people don't know what a wonderful person he was because they only witnessed his exploits and his aggressive style of play on the field.
To whatever degree he deserved it, Bernier became known as a combative player, and it's only accurate to say that in the 1950s and early 1960s, the chances were not good of a major league team acquiring/promoting a black Latin player who was (a) no longer very young, (b) had done poorly in a previous major league opportunity, and (c) had a reputation for aggressiveness. After 1953 Bernier was a career minor leaguer, and in that period - the very end of the era in which there were such things as career minor league stars - he became a highly accomplished minor league star. Bernier led the PCL in stolen bases in 1955 and 1956, in triples in 1956 and 1958, in runs scored in 1958, in walks in 1959 and 1963, in batting average in 1961, and in on-base percentage in 1961 and 1963.
Bernier capped off his 18-year career on Organized Baseball with a season in the Mexican League in 1965 - giving him an O.B. career with home-team stints not only all over the mainland U.S., but also in Canada, Hawaii, and Mexico. His career minor league record - 298/397/449, with 1,594 runs, 2,374 hits, 1,317 walks, and 594 stolen bases - is among the greatest of all time. Bernier is a very well-deserving member of the Pacific Coast League Hall of Fame. Moreover, he annually starred in the highly competitive Puerto Rican Winter League - only Rickey Henderson, 32 years later, eclipsed his stolen base record there.
All in all, to see Carlos Bernier's baseball career as a .213 one-liner is to see it all wrong. That forlorn one-season major league performance indicates brevity and failure, and Bernier's career was in fact quite the opposite: it was long and successful, and bursting with color and interest and excitement and victory. A remarkable number of Bernier's teams, after 1953 as well as before, were league champions or strong contenders, and Bernier himself was nearly always a key reason why.
Among the many dozens of Bernier's teammates from 1948 through 1965, here are a few we haven't yet mentioned: Jim Bagby Jr. (the pitcher who halted Joe DiMaggio's 56-game hitting streak), Gus Bell, Harry Byrd, Murry Dickson, Johnny Edwards, Joe Garagiola, Lenny Green, Ray Jablonski, Al Jackson, Julian Javier, Ralph Kiner, Ed Kirkpatrick, Bobby Knoop, Brooks Lawrence, Johnny Lindell, Dale Long, Bill Mazeroski, Mickey McDermott, Jim McGlothlin, Tom "Plowboy" Morgan, George "Red" Munger, Irv Noren, Claude Osteen, Howie Pollet, Rick Reichardt, Pat Seerey, Diego Segui, Dick Stuart, Willie Tasby, and Bob Veale. Those guys could play a little ball. Carlos Bernier lived a baseball life that few have ever matched.
Besides, any career that includes five years in Hollywood, and four more in Honolulu, has to have been a blast.
Year Club League Class G AB R H 2B 3B HR RBI BB SO SB CS BA OBP SLG 1948 Port Chester Colonial B 104 270 72 67 7 7 3 29 54 60 24 - .248 .373 .359 1949 Indianapolis AA AAA 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - .000 .000 .000 1949 Bristol Colonial B 120 444 136 149 25 5 15 56 107 73 89 - .336 .465 .516 1950 Bristol Colonial B 52 192 67 55 10 2 9 33 41 33 53 - .286 .412 .500 St. Jean Provincial C 64 242 69 81 9 2 15 39 51 35 41 - .335 .451 .574 Total 116 434 136 136 19 4 24 72 92 68 94 - .313 .433 .541 1951 Tampa Fla. Intl. B 135 501 124 136 11 21 5 58 83 81 51 - .271 .375 .407 1952 Hollywood PCL Open 171 652 105 196 24 9 9 79 56 78 65 - .301 .356 .406 1953 Pittsburgh NL MLB 105 310 48 66 7 8 3 31 51 53 15 14 .213 .324 .316 1954 Hollywood PCL Open 119 431 85 135 24 6 6 41 57 58 38 - .313 .393 .439 1955 Hollywood PCL Open 168 580 93 162 24 8 12 73 70 93 29 - .279 .357 .410 1956 Hollywood PCL Open 159 626 91 177 22 15 3 57 64 77 48 - .283 .349 .380 1957 Hollywood PCL Open 126 445 62 129 17 5 3 49 55 63 12 - .290 .368 .371 1958 Salt Lake City PCL AAA 151 546 121 181 27 11 15 86 76 70 34 - .332 .413 .504 1959 Salt Lake City PCL AAA 152 513 73 144 19 10 9 81 91 85 21 12 .281 .389 .409 1960 Columbus Intl. AAA 35 76 13 14 1 0 1 6 15 19 4 0 .184 .319 .237 Indianapolis AA AAA 98 325 57 91 14 5 4 35 64 51 18 - .280 .398 .391 Total 133 401 70 105 15 5 5 41 79 70 22 - .262 .383 .362 1961 Indianapolis AA AAA 19 48 7 13 1 0 1 9 12 6 1 - .271 .417 .354 Hawaii PCL AAA 127 433 89 152 18 6 20 87 95 59 22 10 .351 .468 .559 Total 146 481 96 165 19 6 21 96 107 65 23 - .343 .463 .538 1962 Hawaii PCL AAA 121 380 81 119 20 2 17 72 95 73 7 7 .313 .451 .511 1963 Hawaii PCL AAA 153 544 113 163 16 4 26 84 98 103 10 7 .300 .407 .487 1964 Hawaii PCL AAA 124 432 92 127 14 5 27 68 81 87 22 11 .294 .405 .537 1965 Reynosa Mexican AA 87 295 44 83 9 6 12 42 52 37 5 4 .281 .389 .475 G AB R H 2B 3B HR RBI BB SO SB BA OBP SLG Minor League Totals 2287 7975 1594 2374 312 129 212 1098 1317 1241 594 .298 .397 .449
References and Resources
The pronunciation of Bernier's name comes from a delightful book that includes a pronunciation guide for many, many players' names: Baseball's Forgotten Heroes, by Tony Salin, Masters Press, Chicago, 1999.
The Jet articles focusing on Bernier were identified by the marvelous resource, BaseballLibrary.com.
Bernier's career record can be found in the wonderful SABR publication, Minor League Baseball Stars, from 1978.
Steve Treder can often be found spending way too much time talking baseball at Baseball Primer. He welcomes your questions and comments via e-mail.